Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth; mostly, it starts in the flat cells that cover the surfaces of the tongue, mouth, and lips. Oral cancer includes cancer of mouth along with the back of the throat and develops
- On the tongue
- On tissue lining the mouth and gums
- Under the tongue
- At the base of the tongue
- Throat region which is at the back of the mouth
- Loose teeth
- Bleeding in mouth
Causes of oral cancer
Most oral cancers are linked with tobacco use, alcohol use (or both), or else infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). People, especially men above 40 years of age, are more prone to it.
Symptoms of oral cancer
People should check out the below-listed symptoms of oral cancer :
- Irritation or sore since a long time
- White or red patches
- Tenderness, pain or numbness in lips or mouth
- Rough spot, lump, crust, thickening or small eroded area
- Difficulty in speaking, swallowing, chewing or moving the tongue or jaw
- Change in voice
Diagnosis of oral cancer
Along with regular examination dentist will ask you regarding changes in medical history or else any of the above-listed symptoms. After that, the dentist will check the oral cavity, including lips, gums, cheek lining, front of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the roof of the mouth. The dentist will also check your throat, including tonsils, back sections, and the place where the tongue attaches the bottom of the mouth. The time the dentist finds something wrong, then he/she will refer you for testing, and can also reexamine your condition and give you more time to pay revisit. Many tests to diagnose oral cancer are prescribed by dentist counting, endoscopy, biopsy, along with imaging tests.
Stages of oral cancer
Treatment decisions depend upon the stage of oral cancer after knowing the progression of the condition. Stages of oral cancer is a vital factor before deciding on treatment options. There are many tests done by cancer doctors to evaluate oral cancer stages. The stage of mouth cancer determines the size as well as depth along with the condition that how much it has spread. The grade clarifies how much the cancer cells appear like normal cells. This gives your doctor an idea of how cancer might behave and what treatment you need. below are the stages of oral cancer :
- Stage 0 – This stage of oral cancer means that it is only growing in the epithelium, which is the outer layer of tissue in the oral cavity. There are no cancer cells in deeper layers of tissue, lymph nodes, and nearby structures at this stage.
- Stage 1 – At this stage of oral cancer, the primary tumor is about 2cm across or smaller, and no cancer cells are in nearby structures and distant sites.
- Stage 2 – At this stage of oral cancer tumor is about 2 cm to 4 cm in a measure, and no cancer cells are in structures, lymph nodes, and distant sites.
- Stage 3 – At this stage of oral cancer, the tumor is more than 4 cm and more and but has not grown to nearby structures or distant sites. Cancer cells may be present in one lymph node located on the same side of the head or neck and are smaller than 3 cm.
- Stage 4 – This stage of oral cancer is classified into three categories :
grown further than the mouth into surrounding structures
cancer has spread to lymph nodes on either side of the neck,
between 3 and 6 cm in size
cancer has spread into nearby areas such as the base of the skull, the space behind the jaw, or the area of neck surrounding the arteries
Size is larger than 6cm
spread into tissues surrounding the lymph node
At this stage, oral cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones.
Treatment of oral cancer
The stage of your cancer helps the dentist to determine the type of treatment you need. Treatment also depends on many other factors counting
- Type of cancer
- Location of the cancer
- Other health conditions of a patient
There are mainly three Treatment options surgery, radiotherapy, Chemotherapy. The Mouth Cancer or Oral Cancer surgery cost in India ranges between USD 3200 to USD 4000. However, the cost of treatment varies and depends on the type of treatment, such as a Laryngectomy or Chemotherapy along with its stage.